Cryotherapy (Ice) and Thermotherapy (Heat) are two simple and effective self-care treatments; however there is often a lot of confusion about when to choose one over the other. The following is a quick guide to help you use both ice and heat safely and effectively.
When to use Heat
Heat can provide temporary relief of stiffness, relax muscles, and stimulate circulation. Heat increases tissue temperature and blood flow by dilating blood vessels, drawing extra nutrients into the area to assist in the recovery and healing process. Heat therapy is most commonly applied with a moist hot pack, but can also be applied with whirlpools or paraffin baths.
When Not to use Heat
Heat should never be used on acute injuries until the swelling is controlled. Heat draws fluids into tissues and can increase swelling and inflammation. Do not use heat over swollen tissues or redness.
Do not use heat before vigorous exercise. Your muscles may be too relaxed to perform safely. (An active warm-up is a better option)
How to Use Heat
Typical treatment times for heat applications are 15-20 minutes. It takes heat a minimum of 15 minutes to penetrate tissues to reach therapeutic temperatures.
Moist heat penetrates more deeply than dry heat and will not dehydrate tissues so circulation is improved.
Precautions when Using Heat
Follow product instructions carefully.
Heat can burn and damage tissues if used improperly.
Do not use heat over areas of numbness or decreased sensation.
When to Use Ice
Ice or Cold therapy is most often used for acute injuries. When applied immediately after an injury, cold treatment can reduce tissue damage and inflammation. Ice also relieves muscle spasms, and can reduce post-exercise soreness.
Cold therapy can be applied with ice packs, cold whirlpools, or cold sprays, but ice massage has been shown to be the most effective form of cold therapy.
When Not to use Ice
Do not use over areas of numbness or poor circulation.
Elderly people, young children, and people with diabetes must use caution with cold.
Recent research indicates impaired muscle strength and power immediately after icing, so it should not be used immediately before exercise or sports.
How to Use Ice
The first 72 hours after an acute injury, you should only use cold treatments.
Treatment time varies depending on several factors, including the size of the treatment area, the type of cold therapy applied, and the size of the individual.
For example, a thin person requires less treatment time because the cold does not need to penetrate through as much soft tissue.
You’ll know when you’ve had the cold on long enough, by monitoring the 4 stages of cold treatment:
Stage 1 is the obvious cold feeling
Stage 2 is a stinging or burning sensation
Stage 3 is aching
Stage 4 is numbness
It can take 5-15 minutes to reach all four stages.
Ice should be removed when numbness is reached.
For acute injuries, apply cold immediately for 10 to 20 minutes. Repeat the cold application 3-4x a day for the first 72 hours after an injury.
To reduce post-exercise soreness, apply cold immediately after exercise for 10 to 20 minutes.
For chronic discomfort, apply cold for a minimum of 10 minutes. Repeat as necessary.
Precautions when Using Ice
Follow packaged instructions carefully.
Ice can burn or damage skin and tissues if used improperly.
Do not use Ice over areas of numbness or decreased sensation.
Please remember that if you have any questions about using Heat or Ice on a particular injury, you should consult your licensed healthcare practitioner.